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The march of Civilisation
Came to Port Phillip in 1840
Arrivals in 1839, here, 1841, here, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849,

Accuracy of the quoted age is questionable - for both adults and children. Fares were determined by the age.

They came by ship - Assisted Immigrants who arrived or left in 1840

Found Dec 2009 - Online Reel - Scroll through the digital copies of these lists, ship by ship, just as you would if you were going through a microfilm in the reading rooms. On 14 Nov 2013 the List begins 2 Jul 1828, shows year, date of Arrival, Ship, and includes 'Persons on bounty ships arriving at Port Phillip,'.
Passenger lists - NSW gives details of the indexes they provide, Victoria now has several indexes including inward and outward overseas passenger lists.
The two NSW sites available Nov 2013 are Assisted Immigrants arriving at Port Phillip 1839 - 1851, as kept by NSW Archives, and Victoria provides Assisted British Immigration kept in Melbourne.
After Separation, Melbourne kept more records, now indexed as Unassisted Inward passengers from overseas ports between 1852 and 1923, and Outward Passengers to Interstate, UK, NZ and Foreign ports 1852 - 1823.

The Cornwall Chronicle (Launceston, Tas.) has shipping movements from Feb 1835 and also repeats the Ship news from Hobart, via their 'Evening Mail'. The Launceston Courier has movements between Launceston and Port Phillip and Portland Bay from Oct 1840.
Sydney shipping reports in their papers sometimes have news from Port Phillip. For example page 2 of the Commercial Journal Sat 14 March 1840 reports the arrival on Mon 24 Feb of the 'Mary Eliza', Paterson from London on 22 Oct 1839 with merchandise and two passengers - the cargo is listed, not the passengers names.
The Hindustan with Emigrants was daily looked for at Port Phillip.
The Madras, Captain Henniker, departure from Launceston on 28 Feb and reported Sat 2 Mar 1839, had left Port Phillip at 8am Fri 21 Feb and anchored at the bar at Launceston at 4pm the following day, a run from Port Phillip said to be unequalled.


The population of newcomers in Jan 1840 was about 5,250, during the year another 2725 sailed in, and about 3,000 came overland
so the census of 21 March 1841 showed a population for the Port Philip District of 11,758 (Melbourne 4,479).

Notes on Vessels by name - Adelaide, Cintra, Eagle, Harvest Home, James, Lord Goderich, Madras, Mary Ridgeway, Perseverance, Statesman, Vesper,

Arrivals by each Month - January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December


324 vessel arrivals recorded in 1840 by 159 different vessels,
56 from beyond colonies.

List from Port Phillip Herald, 26 June 1840 reports the Andromache had a problem with the shoals near the Heads
Comment by Editor - At present we have no means of learning anything of the arrival of vessels in port until it suits the Captains' convenience to enter at the Customs House.

Name and date in Bold type indicates these eight vessels brought Bounty immigrants and has its own page

January - John Bull 22, Madras 22,
February - William Barres 7, Caroline 8, William Metcalfe 10, Columbian 24, Mary Eliza 26 from London,
March - Rajasthan 9, Indus 15, Brankenmor 14,
April - Lord Goderich 7, Tomatin 9, India 9, Seppings 9, Louisa Campbell 16, Glenhuntly 17, Caledonia 18, Thomas Laurie 23,
May - China 2, Arab 9, Strathfieldsaye 9, Orissa 10, Dauntless 15,
June - Majestic 8, Cintra 17, Duchess of Kent 20, Statesman 20, Andromache 24, Mellish 29,
July - Coromandel 10, Theresa 18, Water Lilly 23 from London only merchandise, Ann Gales actually went to Port Jackson,
August - Marmion 8, Isabella Watson 11, Culdee 13, Dauntless 15, Dovecot 20 from London, William Woolley 27, East London 28,
September - Eagle 30, Himalaya 30,
October - London 18, Thomas Harrison 31,
November - Martin Luther 1, Perfect 8, Clydesdale 9, Lapwing 15 from Liverpool,
December - Glenalvon 9, Midlothian 13, Orient 13, Dumfries 14, Vesper 14, Anne 15,

All 159 vessels recorded in 1840 -
Adelaide, Agenoria, Agnes, Agnes and Elizabeth, Alice Brooks, Anne, Arab, Arabian, Australia, Bandicoot, Bessy, Black Swan, Blossom, Bolina, Boujah Maiden, Branken Moor, Bright Planet, Britannia, Britomart, Bundica, Caledonia, Camilla, Caroline - ship, Caroline brig, Challenger, Charlotte, Childe Harold, China, Christina, Cintra, Clonmel, Clydesdale, Columbian, Coromandel, Culdee, Cumberland, Curlew, Dauntless, Dorset, Dovecot, Dryade, Duchess of Kent, Dumfries, Dusty Miller, Eagle schooner, Eagle ship, Eamont, Earl Stanhope, East London, Elizabeth, Elizabeth Lloyd, Emily, Emma, Enterprise, Essex, Flinders, Flying Squirel, Fox, Gem, Glenalvon, Glenhuntly, Goshawk, Governor Gawler, Gratitude, Gunga, Henry, Himalaya, Hind, Hindostan, Indemnity, India, Indus, Industry, Isabella Watson, James, Jane and Emma, Jean, Jewess, John Bull, Joshua Carroll, Lady Emma, Lady of the Lake, Lapwing, Lillias, Lively, London, Lookin, Lord Goderich, Lord Hobart, Lord Saumarez, Lord Sidmonth, Lord Western, Louisa Campbell, Lowestoft, Lucy, Madras, Magnet, Majestic, Mandane, Maquasha, Margaret, Maria, Mariner, Marmion One, Marmion Two, Martin Luther, Mary, Mary Eliza, Mary Hay, Mary Ridgeway, Melbourne, Mellish, Midlothian, Mona, Orient, Orissa, Paul Pry, Perfect, Perseverance, Pickwick, Piscator, Porter, Prince George, Rajasthan, Rapid, Rectus, Rookery, Rovers Bride, Samuel Cunard, Schooner Minerva, Scout, Seppings, Shamrock, Singapore, Sir John Franklin, Sisters, Socrates, Statesman, Strathfieldsaye, Superb, Swan River Packet, Tamar, Tasman, Tasmanian Lass, Theresa, Thomas, Thomas Harrison, Thomas Laurie, Tomatin, Truganina, Vesper, Victoria, Wallaby, Water Lilly, Westminster, Will Watch, William Barras, William Metcalfe, William Woolley,

Geelong Advertiser
commenced Dec 1840,
Sarah Layton drowned trying to fetch water, Charles Ruffle opened a Bakery,
John Rice absconded and Thomas Wright wants him back, Ben Levien has opened a punt and hotel at Saltwater River,
and Mrs J Griffin had a daughter 21 Dec, at the Geelong Retreat Inn

Bounty payments In 1839 the vessels brought Government Immigrants, now the system is changed to allow 'Private Enterprise' to participate, and Victoria is to pay a Bounty for each employee landed. This was later extended to include reduced prices for children, thus also paying for their food during the voyage.
See "The Somerset Years", by Florence Chuk, page 46 for a discussion on the relative merits of the two systems - Government scheme concentrated on the immigrants, carried their cargo, wasted valuale cargo space, and used the barracks to house the new arrivals. The Bounty scheme was in private hands, filled spare space with cargo, and did not have a sheltered landing place on reaching Melbourne.

The John Bull arrived 21 Jan 1840 with English papers up to 6 Oct 1839.
On Fri 7 Feb the Port Phillip Herald printed Sydney Intelligence from the Sydney papers of 25 Jan, brought by the overland mail.
On Feb 23 the PPH printed English news received in Sydney by the James Pattison which took 82 days to arrive from Lands End, and then brought by the Christina which left Sydney 16 Feb. Fri 20 Mar 1840 Column 1, 'The Land Revenue', begins - The first sale of Crown Lands in the district of Port Phillip was held in Sydney on 4 June 1837 ... and only four emigrant ships have arrived direct from Britain, viz., the David Clarke, William Metcalfe, Westminster and John Bull, and of these only the first was a Government emigrant vessel; the rest were bounty ships and the Emigrant Agent General had no control over their destination. See the newspaper cutting concerning the payments to be made.

Fri 17 April 1840 we see English intelligence dated 23 Nov 1839 which contains the intended marriage of the Queen to Prince Albert of Saxe Coburg
A Bill for the naturalization of Prince Albert had passed the Lords and Commons and received the Queen's assent previous to the Queen's marriage.
On 19 June we see English intelligence to the 14 Feb has arrived via the Cintra, but she brings no regular mail. They report Queen Victoria's marriage took place on 10 Feb 1840 and a full column of small print contains the description of the marriage ceremony.

My pages are a combination of reports by the Port Phillip Herald listing arrival of 40 vessels from United Kingdom,
and Shipping lists for Bounty passengers, suggests 2725 persons came to Port Phillip in 1840.
Paying passengers listed (790 names from Herald, includes departures) are 517 Cabin, 128 Intermediate, 458 Steerage,
73 vaguely described and 1550 Bounty emigrants. In other words, approximately 5 Bounty immigrants for each 4 who paid and could be expected to become employers.


Port Phillip Herald Fri 26 June 1840. Editor outlines urgent wants for good management of Sydney's newest settled district

A Supreme Court with resident Judge (Sydney has 3 Judges)
A lighthouse at the entrance to the harbour, bouys to mark safe channels through the shoals.
Pilots and signal stations between the Heads, Melbourne, Williams Town and Geelong.
Post Office communication between the ships to enssure regular receipt and despatch of mail, also town mail delivery
Public wharf replacing the bank of the river and tree stumps used at present despite masters of vessels having to pay harbour dues.
Streets passable in wet weather. Particularly Collins and Elizabeth Streets where a dray can be so bogged six or eight bullocks struggle to drag it out.
A Jail. At present the prisoners are kept in custody during the daytime, in the street in front of Jail, by a guard of soldiers.
A Hospital to replace the present slab hut.
A Court House with rooms for prisoners, Jury and Court. The present building also serves as the Police Office.
A Coroner to serve the interests of justice, accidents are a frequent occurance.
Roads to facilitate access to land obtained by purchasing Crown Lands which has raised 200,000 pounds


Thoughts on Early Port Phillip

Written in answer to someone researching his gggrandmother who came 1841 from Somerset.
Hi, Have you asked your Library to borrow a copy of “The Somerset Years” by Florence Chuck? Essential reading for this project. What was wrong with Somerset?
Your essay does show me gaps in my own knowledge.
You have written a good first draft. Trying to get into Susan's shoes, thinking of the two sisters and their decision to leave, what they packed for the new life, coping with no snow, weather hot in December, the moon no longer a face, shadow pointing south instead of north, even the trees look wrong. The lack of houses and church hundreds of years old ... the freedom from the older generation, the chance to have a say and pick your own husband, to employ young girls to help with house and children ..Being stuck when you get it wrong, finding a nugget of gold when camped overnight on a trip to see what was there.
Have you been to UK? we took our children when we turned 40 and lived at Reading, went back when 50 and lived in Gloucester, 60, 63, 65 each time returned to Gloucester - then got grand child who clipped our wings. Had a total of 3 years 6 months - they cut the Visa back to 6 months after our second trip.
1. What was the usual fare paid for the voyage from England to Australia in 1840 - 1842?
The only items I have noticed are ships advertising the passage back to England, and can not remember the charges. My impression is that the Bounty paid to the Agent was around half the normal fare for Cabin passage
Port Phillip was started about the same time, by the Henty family at Portland but they took years before it was Surveyed and got Government approval. Melbourne too, was occupied before Sydney officials 'caught up' and started selling 'Crown Land' they assumed they owned. See my note on the Land Fund.
South Australia, a planned settlement begun in 1836, was to have no convicts. Also the social climate in England was moving away from sentencing minor criminals to transportation. As well the 'good citizens' in New South Wales and Tasmania were realising that slave labour (which is what the life of the convict amounted to) was socially down-putting.
The convicts themselves were well aware of the exact date when their servitude was due to end. Many served out their time, others got remissions for good behaviour (making sure the boss did not catch me, or doing something like helping capture runaway convicts). I notice many went to Port Phillip, and merged, not enough officials for anyone to have time to worry about them.
Another side of the coin was the sale of land to new settlers. This was a government activity, and the money went into the Land Fund, administered in Sydney (there was no other administration). This money was the source of the funds to pay (or refund) the Agent, whose representative was the Surgeon-Superintendant of the Assisted Immigrants.
Some of the money also went to fund the start of New Zealand, to the disgust of the settlers who thought it would be used just to give them an endless supply of 'raw immigrant' employees. The fund was exhausted in 1842, too many ships arrived in 1841 for it to keep up with the conflicting demands. Add in the poor accounting skills of the people with their hands on the money bag - it is no wonder bankruptcy was put into Law, with a way out also part of the scheme.
Surgeon was a kind description of the skills the doctor had. No anaesthetic, no disinfectant, skills judged by how many blood stains on his clothes, but he had been trained in one of the Universities, and did have official qualification papers, in the same way as did Lawyers. On the Plus side, he could read, write, count, and knew the importance of keeping records - though in our eyes, not as well as we now want.
John Marshall of London was the Agent who was responsible for gathering the people, hiring the vessel, making sure it was provisioned, and hoped it would bring back his money - in the case of the George Fyfe, 3667 pounds. He got rich and went bankrupt in 1842 after some badly provisioned voyages.
The Superintendant part involved keeping the Bounty passengers alive, making them clean their steerage area daily - the section of the ship above the cargo and under the deck - area where there were 3 sections, fore, mid where the married were and aft, single women the end near the Surgeon, single men the other end. A Matron was appointed to see the single women did not mingle with the sailors, or the men, especially the married ones.
The Bounty people had to conform to a pattern of what was suitable, in order to qualify for what was to them a job - beginning with a ride across the ocean, and ending with accommodation and food provided in return for agricultural labouring for a year. Then the wages received could be used to become self-employed, and support a wife.
After they arrived and were able to leave the Depot 'at their own cognisance' some unpacked their tools of trade and became shoemakers, dressmakers, cooks, carpenters and all the other trades the Land Owners were too proud to admit were needed.
Elizabeth


Arrivals by each Month - January, February, March, April, May, June, July, August, September, October, November, December

Notes on Vessels by name - Adelaide, Cintra, Eagle, Harvest Home, James, Lord Goderich, Madras, Mary Ridgeway, Perseverance, Statesman, Vesper,

Arrivals in 1839, here, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849,
Home, and Notes on events

Elizabeth Janson's web contributions
began 1st Nov, 1998
This page began on 16 July 2007
Updated 30 Aug 2012 - revised to the end of 1844
See my Resume and list of new web addresses.
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