Image from Victorian Periodicals and the Empire, "The March of Civilisation, or News from Australia!" The Illuminated Magazine Jan 1844.
Tetbury UK around 1737
Forest Edge in UK 2003
ancestor - Jonathan Otley
My church pages
Pioneers of Vic
To South Australia by Di Cummings|
Passenger lists -
NSW NRS reels handwritten records
Bounty lists NSW and Victoria,
1839, 1840, 1841,
1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849,
hand luggage for voyage,
Churches before 1848
Baptisms of triplets
Notes on over 41,500 people
Diary 1835 - 1842, in Rootsweb
Batman Fawkner and Hutton
Ferguson news 1840-5
1839 - David Clark,
1840 - Andromache, China, Coromandel, Glenhuntley,
Himalaya, Isabella Watson, John Bull, Orient, Theresa
1841 - Georgiana, Grindlay, Intrinsic, Ward Chapman
Sydney shipping reports in The Colonial Magazine and Commercial Maritime Journal are good, also see the Hobart Courier|
The Geelong Advertiser is online from 21 Nov 1840, 1841, 1842, and missed 1843, has 1844 and 1845. Melbourne Times began Volume 1, Number 1 on 9 April, 1842.
'PaperofRecord' had 'Port Phillip Herald' beginning 3 Jan 1840, omits issues for Nov 1842.
This was sold to Google, and has dropped off Internet, 20 Feb 2009. 25 Dec 2009 I found it available via WorldVitalRecords
Melbourne Argus begins June 1846.
The Prahran Mechanics' Institute Victorian History Library http://www.pmi.net.au/ is the only lending library specialising in Victorian history available to the general public.
From on Monday, 21 September, 2009|
In references to ship size, 1 ton refered to 100 sq feet of space, each adult passenger was supposed to have 2 tons of living space.|
Passengers were provided with the following aids:Knife, fork, tablespoon, teaspoon, metal plate, hot cook pot and mug. Upon arrival in the colony, these articles were given to assisted immigrants who behaved well on the voyage. Immigrants were also advised to take an iron kettle, a couple of saucepans, a frying pan, tea pot and pail.
For every 100 passengers the following medical comforts were carried on board.
10 pounds of arrowroot, 50 pounds of preserved beef, 400 pints of lemon juice, 400 lb of sugar to mix with the lemon juice 60 pounds of scotch barley, 18 bottles of port wine, 300 gallons of stout, 50 gallons of rum.
See Garrison orders Feb 28, 1803 - fascinating pages of Orders. The book of Lt Colonel David Collins, to be Lt Governor of Port Phillip, 1803-4.
Lieut-Governor Collins was born 1756 and in 1788 he came in the First Fleet as Judge-Advocate with Governor Phillip. Page 66, 'Early Records of Port Phillip' begins the account by Rev'd Robert Knopwood, account of voyage of the Clacutta bringing Lieut-Governor David Collins and lists officers to the intended settlement of Port Phillip, commenced journey 24 April 1803 at Spit Head, UK, in company with the Ocean transport, Captain Merthow. The Officers of the Calcutta - commanded by Dan Woodriff, Esq., Captain, James Tuckey 2st Lieut, Richard Donovan 2nd Lieut, Nicholas Pateshall 3rd Lieut, William Dowers 4th Lieyut, John Houston 5th Lieut, Richard Wright Master, Master's Mates Stone and Gammon, Edward Brumley Surgeon, William J'anson Asst Surgeon, Mathew Bowden 2nd and William Hopley 3rd Asst Surgeons, and Edward White Purser with Midshipmen Vernon, Stebvens, Harcourt, Vicary, Armstrong, Woodriff and Wiseman. The party included 11 free settlers and a female servant, Thomas Clark and William Patterson Superintendants of 307 convicts and 12 wives with 2 Overseers John Ingle and William Parish, 39 privates with a Drummer and a Fifer, 3 Corporals, 3 Serjents, 1st Lieut William Sladden, 2nd Lieut JM Johnson and 3rd Lieut Edward Lord, and some soldiers wives. GP Harris was Deputy Surveyor and AWH Humphrey the Mineralogist.
On 13 Dec 1803 notes the meritorious conduct of six convicts - John Rawlinson, Urias Allender, Christopher Forshap, William Thomas, James Price and David Wakefield who appear to have been included in the Detachment to be landed near Arthur's Seat, Port Phillip.
A convict printer, Robert Walsh printed the orders and instructions for the settlement on a small printing press. During the time of the settlement 43 such orders were printed
Settler, John Skilton, died on 17 October 1803. On 25 November 1803, the first child, William James Hobart Thorne, was born to a soldier, Sergeant Thorne and his wife. 28 November First marriage at Port Phillip, Richard Garratt ( prisoner) to Hannah Harvey.
One child of convict parents was John Pascoe Fawkner 20 October 1792 – 4 September 1869, who returned to start the settlement of Melbourne in 1835. His mother Hannah Pascoe with John an 11 year old and Elizabeth aged 9, they accompanied their convict father, who had been sentenced to fourteen years gaol (jail) for receiving stolen goods, being transported as part of a two ship fleet to establish a new British colony in Bass Strait in 1803. Another convict Samuel Tomlin later became a bushranger in Tasmania, and Thomas Green convict per 'Calcutta', wed 13 Oct 1809 to John's 14 year old sister Elizabeth Fawkner
On 30 January 1804, the “Ocean” set sail for the Derwent River. Lieutenant William Sladden was left behind in charge of a small group. The “Ocean” returned and on 20 May 1804, the settlement was abandoned.
|From RS Webb's |
Return of Immigrants,in 1837 - 619 men, 78 women and 43 children, in 1838 - 1088 men, 97 women and 75 children, and in 1839 - 1629 came from Van Dieman's Land, 33 from SA, 517 from NSW, 4 from New Zealand, and 1036 from Great Britain and Ireland.
From Meeting Batman
1835 Victoria, Australia: William Buckley (1780 - January 30, 1856), Cheshire, UK-born escaped convict in Australia, gave himself up to John Batman’s landing party. |
Buckley had spent 32 years in the bush living among Aboriginal tribespeople, and was the only known European living in what is today the state of Victoria.
William Buckley 11 October 1836 appointed constable and interpreter to the natives, at a salary of 60 pounds per year.
8 Nov 1836 had 2 horses, hut and 1 acre garden
He died in 1856 at Hobart.
Book ... By Richard Howitt ... "Impressions of Australia Felix, during four years residence in that colony" ... By Richard Howitt
Self-funded (paying) passengers were independant of the bounty system, may not be listed.|
Reason for lists on arrival was to approve claim of Bounty payment to the Agent who organised the voyage and selected the passengers, so the list concentrated on the passengers who arrived alive.
For Bounty to be approved, adults had to be healthy, single, or accompanied by spouse (who may die during the voyage). Boys under 18 and girls under 15 must accompany their parents. Children under a year old were not counted for the Bounty, but were included in the count of souls for the Gratuity (which could be refused if passengers could prove it had not been earned).
Standard Bounty payment increased in 1840, was in pounds - 19 for adults, 15 for boys aged 15-18, 10 for children 7-15, 5 for children aged 1-7. Infants were not paid for, not issued with food, etc.
Staff are consistently shown as 5 - the Mastor, Surgeon-Superintendent, 1st, 2nd and 3rd Mate, because these 5 are paid, names are usually on Ship Disposal Certificate (Victorian lists). The Crew payments - Superintendant-Surgeon (Doctor) 10/6, Master 3/-, 1st Mate 1/6 and 2nd and 3rd Mates each received 1/- were based on the number of Bounty souls landed, so infants were counted here. It was in the Doctor's interests to give mothers extra 'medicines'.
In 1844 the amount of Bounty was reduced to 18/14/- per adult.
See Military ship rigs for exact information.|
A barque has at least three masts, all rigged with at least three square sails each, except for the sternmost one, which is rigged with fore-and-aft sails. The wooden three-masted barque was the most common type of cargo-carrier in the middle of the 19th century. The older square rigged ship, by conversion to a barque, needed fewer seamen to handle the rig, and could sail closer to the wind.
To quote from Michael Cannon's 'Perilous Voyages to the New Land', a ship 'ton' refers to 100 cubic feet of space and can vary according to the way the vessel is fitted, and a 'ton' of freight usually occupied forty cubic feet of space.
|Clancy's first 10 years here, 'The Overflow of Clancy' by Eric Gerald Clancy 1979, Chapter 1, Irish life and deciding to immigrate on the 'Diamond', Chapter 2 their first few years in Melbourne|
|Lenore Frost's Port Phillip District & Victorian settlers indexes, Links to Lookups and Surname Lists
The Port Phillip Almanac and Directory 1847 being some Residents with addresses, Kerr's Melbourne almanac trabscribed by Lenore Frost, Resident Judge Willis, 1841-3
The Town of Melbourne was raised to the status of a City by Letters Patent of Queen Victoria dated 25 June, 1847, just five years after its incorporation. This royal action arose from a desire to establish a bishop’s see of the Church of England in the town: as the establishment of a bishopric required the status of a city, Melbourne was ecclesiastically created a cathedral city by the letters which the Queen gave to the first bishop.|
It was not until 3 August, 1849, that it found a place in the statute book, when Act 13 Victoria No. 14 was finally assented to as “An Act to effect a change in the Style and Title of the Corporation of Melbourne rendered necessary by the erection of the Town of Melbourne to a City”.
The Right Reverend Charles Perry was consecrated as the first bishop of Melbourne on 29 June, 1847, four days after the granting of the Letters Patent by the Queen. He arrived in Melbourne on board ‘The Stag’ on 23 January, 1848, and was installed on 28 June that year in the Cathedral Church of St. James.
The Letters Patent given to Dr. Perry were subsequently lost and not recovered until 1930 when they were found in an old London second-hand shop. They now form part of the Collection of St Paul’s Cathedral and are treasured by its authorities.
John Larkin Australian Family History, launched Thu, 17 Apr 2008. A quote - "We're particularly keen to follow the fortunes of the 6,000 'Bounty' (assisted immigrants) who came to Victoria (then called Port Phillip) in 1840-41. We'd guess they'd have 300,000 descendants today." and he quotes a family I have written up in my Pioneers site - John and Isabelle Primrose |
|Pioneer Owners of the Wimera, a pdf file of the book by Thomas Young, showing the pastoral leases and changes in ownership, from 1842 when Benjamin Boyd took up the first station, Ledcourt, an area of 200,000 acres, up to the year 1880, and quoting from Mr AS Kenyon's "The Story of the Mallee".|
Classes of Passengers |
The Cabin passengers who had the best parts of the ship, and servants, etc, were considered 'Superior' and the Bounty were the 'dirty, unpleasant poor'.
The Agent appointed a Doctor as Surgeon-Superintendent in charge of the group of roughly 250 people crowded into the poorest quality accommodation, one bath and a couple of toilets for their use.
Disallowed means that the Agent who was claiming money - 19 pounds per adult and less for children over 7 and over 1 year - had to have his claim approved. The official who made the list of arrivals decided if the person was an acceptable immigrant under the Bounty system. Some were disallowed because their trade was not on the list of 'approved trades', others because they were over 40 years old. One pair claimed they were man and wife with 4 children, but during the voyage the kids let slip that 'he/she is not my Dad/Mum' so they were disallowed.
As I mentioned, young women whom the Surgeon-Superintendent had problems with, so he put in a bad report, were then disallowed. This meant the Agent lost 19 pounds, the Ship Master etc lost their gratuities for that person - payments were based on the number of Bounty souls landed, so infants were counted here - Doctor received 10/6, Master 3/-, 1st Mate 1/6 and 2nd and 3rd Mates received 1/- a head. The person lost the support given to the Approved Bounty people in finding a job. By the time the list was made out, and the sum of money determined, the individuals were 'long gone' into Melbourne and its doubtful environment. By Oct in 1841, Melbourne had been swamped by too many people (the population roughly doubled in the year, creating chaos, and bankruptcies and so on.
The Victoria Public Records Office, are the holders of what original shipping lists have survived. They also held (I mean not sent to Sydney) the Certificates each Bounty person had to bring - with personal details, signatures of home church for baptism, by employer that they were 'good, honest workers' I have not visited Melbourne and have not chased up these certificates. The ones here in Sydney only relate to the people who were paid for by the Sydney authorities.
Joseph Hawdon, The First Overlander", by Brian Packard pub 1997, ISBN 0 646 31190 5 Pub by Fast Books, a division of Wild & Woolley Pty Ltd, Glebe.|
His first epic journey was to be first to take a herd of cattle starting 4 Jan 1838 from the Goulburn River, along the Murray and to Adelaide
"First Years at Port Phillip 1834-1842" by R. D. Boys, 1959, Robertson and Mullins, Melbourne
"Perilous voyages to the new land" - Cannon, Michael 1929-, Publisher: Today's Australia, Pub date: 1995, Pages: 238 p. :ISBN: 0646240188 Accounts of immigrant ships to Australia 1840-1850 that reveal often harrowing conditions and experiences, with storms, rickets, disease, irresponsible captains and wild passengers. Chapters also discuss Irish orphan immigration and attempts at reform. With contemporary illustrations, five documentary appendixes, bibliography and index.
"The Somerset years" : Government assisted emigrants from Somerset and Bristol who arrived in Port Phillip/Victoria 1839-1854, CHUK, Florence. Publisher: Pennard Hill, Pub date: (198-) ISBN: 073160136
Arrivals in 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, 1843, 1844, 1845, 1846, 1847, 1848, 1849,
began 1st Nov, 1998
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